Studia Swedenborgiana

Vol. 7 June,  1991 Number 2 

Jung and His Intellectual context: the Swedenborgian Connection

by Eugene  Taylor

He looked at his own Soul with a telescope. What seemed all irregular, he saw and shewed to be beautiful consteUataons, and he added to the Consciousness hidden worlds within worlds.

Coleridge, Notebooks

It is perhaps inconceivable in the latter half of the twentieth century to suggest that Carl Gustav Jung, Swiss psychiatrist, folklorist, and philologist, should be associated with any other name than Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis. For after all, wasn't Jung Freud's most eminent disciple? Didn't Freud discover the unconscious and Jung therefore follow in his footsteps as an acolyte and heir apparent to the psychoanalytic throne? Didn't Jung learn all about dynamic theories of the unconscious from Freud, and then break away to develop his own errant interpretations of psychoanalytic theory, thus classing him with the likes of Rank, Homey, and Adler as one of the neo-Freudians?

Recent historical evidence suggests that the answer to all these questions might actually be a resounding "No!" and that Jung's thought, in fact, should be interpreted nor within the context of Viennese psychoanalysis, but in light of the indigenous history of Swiss psychology and its more enduring connections to the so-called French-Swiss-and-Anglo-American psychotherapeutic axis that flourished in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.

As the details of this interrelation are only now being spelled out, it is possible that Jung's early attraction to the writings of Emanuel Swedenborg, rather than being seen as just some isolated incident, provides yet another clue to the myriad ways that Jungian thought actually has closer affinities to a uniquely English and American rather than Viennese psychology of the subconscious.

To begin with, the great contention between Freud and Jung was allegedly based on their differences over the nature of hbido, or psychic energy. In the stereotypic picture of their relationship, Freud espoused a detailed and systematic theory of childhood sexual development, which, as long as dynamic processes of the unconscious unfolded in a normal way, led to mature and well adjusted sexual behavior in adulthood. Should traumatic incidences or psychic conflict over sexual matters occur, however, depending on their nature and severity, developmental fixation of unconscious processes would occur, and the resulting emotional (and sexual) stunting would produce characteristic neuroses in adulthood. Jung, the stereotype suggests, had come to Freud in 1906 knowing very little about the unconscious, leamed everything at the feet of the master, but then broke with Freud and his circle in 1912 over the sexual emphasis given to the development of the neurosis.

Jung, it is supposed, had begun to advocate only after a long tenure under Freud that the nature of psychic energy was spiritual. In his view, sexual adjustment was certainly a part of human maturation, but far more important was a predictable struggle between the ego and the self that

develops over control of the personality within the psychic life of each person. The urge toward wholeness, or individuation, as Jung called it, gave consciousness a teleological function. Neurosis therefore was not based on faulty adjustment to external material reality, but on an incomplete or thwarted process of personality transformation, where transcendence of the ego has not been accomplished.

We may well wonder where Jung got some of these ideas and, again, the general wisdom is that, viewing him now in our own post-positivist age, he was a unique personality with an eccentric outlook, whose theories of a spiritual psychology were underived.1 We have ample evidence, however, that psychology and religion in Switzerland continued to enjoy a lively dialogue long after positivistic reductionism first established its stranglehold on German science. In numerous instances, an amicable fusion occurred to one degree or another in the theoretical systems of such notables as August Forel, a modem pioneer in brain neuropathologywho had been Eugen Blueler's predecessor as head of the Bergholzli Asylum;2 Adolf Meyer, Forel's most distinguished student, who became a pioneer in the psychobiosocial approach in American psychiatry;, Paul Dubois, the neurologist whose early text the Psychic Treatment of Nervous Disorders became a bible in American psychotherapeutic circles after 1905; Theodore Flournoy, Switzerland's most distinguished experimental psychologist at the turn of the century;, Edward Claparede, the child psychologist who had been a student and colleague of Flournoy (and also a relative); Oskar Pfister, minister and Freudian lay analyst;3 and Jean Piaget,4 the noted developmental psychologist and student of Claparede. To this list, the new scholarship suggests, must be added the psychology of Carl Jung.5

A number of important conceptualizations linked Jung particularly with French, English and American efforts to develop a dynamic theory of the unconscious. Primary among these was the Protestant myth of the Ascension as a driving force behind the iconography of transcendence in personality development. In numerous models of personal° ity that flourished at the turn of the century, normality was considered imperfect, blighted, and insufficient, and it was only by the transformation from a lesser, undeveloped state to a higher, more sacralized and spiritual one, that the best qualities of our humanity could become actualized in the person. It was not lost on Jung, as well as others, that such a motif within Christian cultures is based on belief in the myth of the resurrection of Jesus, accepted as either a real physical occurrence or as a numinous projective symbol suggesting the possibility of transcendence.

The question of transcendence had been a burning one for Jung. Even as a young man, he was called upon to reconcile the intense spirituality of his father, a Protestant clergyman, who had been a seelsorge, or pastoral counselor in the Swiss asylums, and the psychic abilities of his mother, a deeply intuitive woman, with the dictates of the new and emerging empirical sciences. He sensed there was some important and as yet unrevealed connection between such phenomena as the transcendent experience, mediumship, and psychopathology. These states stand in enigmatic relation to waking consciousness, and he was impelled early on to understand them.

In this search, at the very beginning of his career, Jung discovered the works of Emanuel Swedenborg. He later proclaimed Swedenborg "a learned and highly intelligent man, and a visionary of unexampled fertility."6 Jung first discovered the writings of the Swedish seer during his student days in the late 1890s, when he remembered himself as being most intellectually alive, full of explosive argument, and preoccupied with the problem of evil. At that time Jung considered himself a theological agnostic with "an absolute conviction when speaking of the soul as immaterial, transcendent, outside time and space-----and yet to be approached scientifically."7 Puzzled by the absence of any serious analysis of the psyche in traditional psychology, he studied somnambulism, hypnosis, and spiritualism. Jung says in his autobiography that besides reading DuPrel, Eschenmayer, Passavant, Kemer, and Gorres, he had excitedly read through seven volumes of Swedenborg, although we are not told which ones.8 In the beginning, he found these authors weird and questionable, but they were the first objective accounts he had read of inner psychological phenomena.9

From here, Jung tumed to modem scientific investigations of the occult, which had flourished since the 1880s through the English and American Societies for Psychical Research and through the experimental work of such men as Theodore Flournoy, a much older colleague in Geneva, F. W. H. Myers in England, and their close friend, William James in America. Beginning in the 1880s, psychical research had proven to be an important vehicle for applying empirical methods to the investigation of the subconscious and as such, had helped spread the views of the new French dynamic psychiatry of Charcot, Janet, Bemheim and Liebeault throughout Europe and America.

Flournoy's major work, for instance, From India to the Planet Mars, was an analysis of subconscious processes revealed in the intensive study of the trance medium, Helene Smith)° F. W. H. Myers, one of the principal investigators of the English Society for Psychical Research, developed his conception of the subliminal consciousness from a study of automatic writing. He described this region below the threshold of consciousness as containing a spectrum of states from pathological to transcendent and he maintained that the inner strata had a mythopoetic function in elevating common thought to the level of guiding visions,11

One of the most important sources for Jung became the work of William James in America. Drawing first from James's Principles of Psychology (1890), Jung was particularly attracted to the analysis of two cases of double personality.

First was the Rev. Ansel Bourne, whom James had studied with Richard Hodgson in their official capacity as investigators for the American Society for Psychical Research. Bourne had suddenly disappeared from his home one day and turned up a year later in another state, confused and in a daze. In the interim he had become a merchant with a separate identity and lifestyle, who had no knowledge of his former self as a minister. Upon reawakening to the identity of Ansel Bourne, he had no idea where he was or who he had been in the capacity of a merchant. His circumstance had attracted the attention of the ASPR and after investigating the veracity of the man's claims and the events as reported, James was able to help the man partially recover some of his lost memories through hypnosis.

The other was the case of Mary Reynolds, a young girl who would pass off into a second personality for months at a time. Reynolds was of particular interest because James indicated that the second personalityto emerge was actually superior to the normal one. Eventually the second personality became permanent and Mary lived out the remainder of her life in this new identity.

James's conjectures on these cases led him to a number of important conclusions about the nature of the subconscious which later influenced Jung's writings. Many years later, Jung would hark back to James's claim:

I cannot but think that the most important step forward that has occurred m psychology since I have been a student of that science is the discovery, first made in 1886, that...there is not only the consciousnessof the ordinary field, with its usual center and margin, but an addition thereto in the shape of a set of memories, thoughts, and feelings, which are extramarginal and outside

of the primary consciousness altogether, but yet must be classed as conscious facts of some sort, able to reveal their presence by unmistakable signs.12

James was for Jung a man of psychological vision and pragmatic philosophy who would on more than one occasion become an inner guide. Jung at one point had said of James: "It was his far-reaching mind which made me realize that the horizons of human psychology widen into the immeasurable."13

Jung drew on these resources for his own early investigations, beginning with his medical dissertation in 1902, "The psychology and pathology of so-called occult phenomena." This was an intensive study of his cousin Helene Preiswerk. Jung had investigated her alleged occult powers at the urging of Eugen Bleuler in order to elucidate certain problems of psychopathology and the unconscious. Numerous aspects of Jung's later psychology appear in this early investigation. Among them, Helene depicted to Jung "a spirit revelation of the forces of this world," in the form of a mandala, or circle, thus presaging an important vehicle Jung would use in his own self-analysis and as a technique for self exploration which he would eventually advocate for his patients.

Once he had graduated from the University at Zurich, Jung began looking around for a suitable contemporary psychology that was scientifically based and wide enough to accommodate his interests. Myers had recently died and James had by then passed off into a period of philosophical metaphysics. Thus, Jung turned back to Europe. During the winter of 1901-2, he served a brief apprenticeship under the physician, philosopher, and foremost student of Charcot, Pierre Janet, seeking first hand knowledge of methods derived from the French experimental psychology of the subconscious. But he came away disappointed. The prevailing French model of dissociation theory, without the vision of James and Myers, was still too limited for the range of phenomena that required explanation.14 During this time, Floumoy, at least, remained an important compatriot.

Then in 1906, Jung made his first contacts with Freud, whose conceptions of the unconscious, as revealed in The Interpretation of Dreams, seemed far-reaching and sufficiendy different enough from the prevailing views to attract him. It was the force of Freud's substantial personality, however, that eventually captivated Jung and drew him ever deeper into the psychoanalytic circle. In a sort of folJe a deux, the two corresponded personally and met frequently for six years. Jung saw Freud's work as a significant scientific investigation of the unconscious and lauded Freud for introducing psychology into modem psychiatry. Freud believed Jung to be the brightest mind of his psychoanalytic group and mentioned to Jung directly on several occasions that he had tapped him as successor to the throne. But all this came to an abrupt end in 1912, when Jung published Transformations and Symbols of the Libido, ha which Jung for the first time in his own words postulated the existence of the collective unconscious. Freud could not tolerate the reinterpretation of his theories, and they mutually agreed to cease aU further personal contact.

While this account is satisfactory as far as it goes, recently several scholars have put forth evidence to show that Jung already had developed his own views before he had ever met Freud, that Jung discussed many of these ideas

with Freud when they fn'st met, and that Jung, in fact never told Freud anything at the end of their relationship that he had not already broached from the beginning.15

While Freud was willing to allow broad verbal discussions, he did make it known in manifold ways to everyone, some not always indirect, that only certain topics were acceptable. What must have galled him the most was that Jung had actually gone into print under the apparent guise of psychoanalysis with ideas that were clearly not Freud's own.

Moreover, the source of the material for Jung's 1912 book had been Floumoy, who had translated the Miller fantasies from French into German and sent them to Jung. Miss Frank Miller, a young, intelligent American woman of an independent bent, had traveled widely, but had been hospitalized for nervous disorders on at least two occasions. She composed a phenomenological essay reflecting the images of her inward journey and Flournoy had published it in his Archives de Psycholgie, in the same issue in which articles had appeared by William James and Edward Clapar6de. Jung analyzed the material and saw in the archetypal images the portent of a coming psychotic breakdown. His analysis of the material occurred during an acute identity crisis of his own, just at a point when he knew that the break with Freud was eminent. His personal identification with the Miller fantasies led him to raise the issue of the repressed feminine in his own psyche and thus to formulate for the first time the possibility that this personal crisis had forced him into an encounter with his own anirna.16

We cannot escape the conclusion that his break with Freud and the narrow interpretations of psychoanalysis caused him to return to the wider frame of reference of his original Swiss and Anglo-American context. Jung tells us as much in the preface to his Fordham University lectures,

delivered just after the split with Freud, when he writes: It has been wrongly suggested that my attitude signifies a "split" in the psychoanalytic movement. Such schisms can only exist in matters of faith. But psychoanalysis is concerned with knowledge and its everchanging formulations. I have taken as my guiding principle William James's pragmatic rule: "You must bring out of each word its practical cash value, and set it at work within the stream of your experience." It appears less as a solution, then, than as a program for more work, and more particularly as an indication of the ways in which existing realities can be changed?17

So Jung had been guided by Flournoy back to William James. James, of course, had died in 1910; thus, I suggest that this reference should be taken in the sense of a symbolic return to Jung's original intellectual and spiritual lineage from which he first derived a dynamic psychology of the subconscious,18 James had cast the philosophical categories of mental life into the context of physiology while at the same time arguing for the efficacy of consciousness in the evolutionary process. The teleological argument remained alive in biology for James because consciousness was a fighter for ends. Myers adapted this interpretation of evolution to the reality of psychic phenomena in the subliminal consciousness, saying that the appearance of such higher forms of functioning in particular individuals was simply a harbinger of what the species was to become as a whole. Jung applied this same teleological paradigm to the evolution and transformation of consciousness within the individual.

At the same time, James was preoccupied enough with the physiology of consciousness to have only broached the symbolic hypothesis, that specific physical symptoms of the neurosis were in some sense symbols of the original trauma, and in this he largely followed Janet rather than Myers. While both Myers and Floumoy did articulate the mythopoetic function of the subliminal, it was left to Jung to expand on it. His task was to create a more complex depth psychology in the twentieth century that was sophisticated enough to rival psychoanalysis in the post-modem period. Jung did this by not only incorporating the older ideas embracing the teleological aims of consciousness, but also by reinterpretingthe function of the symbolic process. Just as the traumatic etiology of the neurosis ushered in an unprecedented era of psychotherapy, he now showed the necessity of constructing a mythic structure if personal transformation is to take place. Growth and health meant not simply adjustment to external social norms, but a new era of understanding the importance of education for transcendence.

All of this had existed in his thought in germinal form from the beginning, and had been quickened by the projective and highly unconscious nature of the relationship Jung had maintained with Freud. But Jung's direct encounter with the unconscious only began when the break with Freud had finally occurred. Once he and Freud had severed their contacts Jung resigned his teaching position at the University of Zurich in 1913 because, he said, he was in such personal turmoil and uncertain about his own self-identity. While he continued to maintain a flourishing private practice, he then embarked upon a six year self-experiment in an attempt to understand the fantasies emerging from his unconscious. To record all that happened, he began a detailed log, the famous Red Book, which he filled with archetypal paintings of the inner landscape during this period.

He ended this experiment with publication of Seven Sermons to the Dead (1921) and immediately thereafter produced his first mandala, which he represented as a map of his own psyche. The rest is history. Beginning in 1922, with publication of Psychological Types, he embarked upon the career for which he has become best known, as an interpreter of dreams, fantasies, myths, alchemical symbols, and religious iconography, during which he produced the bulk of the eighteen volumes that compose his collected works.

Jung and Swedenborg

Thus, it is no accident that after his break with Freud, Jung returned periodically to delve into Swedenborg's books. He also read biographies and comments on Swedenborg's life, and he cited Swedenborg on numerous occasions in his own collected works. There are two explanations why this might be so.

First, the intellectual and spiritual lineage Jung had used to construct a psychology of the unconscious was sympathetic to Swedenborgian thought. William James's father had written some dozen works on Swedenborg, had been instrumental in introducing Swedenborg to the New England transcendentalists, and had evolved a religious philosophy based on the Swedish seer's works that formed the bulwark of the literary legacy inherited bv his sons, William and Henry. Then William himself authored almost a dozen more works on psychology and philosophy implicitly answering his father's Swedenborgian metaphysics. Jung, we know, drew particularly from James's -principles of Psychology from his Varieties of Religious Experience, and from his Pragmatism.

F. W. H. Myers, as well, was no stranger to Swedenborg and referred to him in several places. He believed that Swedenborgwas a precursor to the mesmerists, who themselves led eventually to a more thorough scientific investigation of the paranormal. At the same time, Swedenborg's accounts not only gave credibility to the thesis that communication from mind to mind was possible independent of the senses, but also, Swedenborg himself was proof that there could be knowledge and memory of a spirit world without actual spirit possession. In his major work, Human Personab'ty and Its Survival of Bodily Death (1903), Myers devotes several pages of personal opinion to Swedenborg's writings, concluding that what he wrote concerning sight, feelings, and experiences of the other world corroborated in many important ways a mass of literature by others sensitives, while Swedenborg's dogmatic statements as to the true internal meaning of the books of the Bible appeared as arbitrary projections of his own preconceived ideas.19

Floumoy, as well, has left us a clue. After From India to the Planet Mars, Flournoy's second most important text was Spiritism and Psychology(1911). In it, Flournoy was considering a classification of various types of mediumship, and under the category of those who were not morbid types, but rather in most robust health, he named Swedenborg.

In contrast, we do not find much sympathy for Swedenborg from Freud and his followers.20 There is also one small piece of evidence from Jung to Freud suggesting the extent of the psychoanalysts' distance from the material. In a reference that particularly annoyed Jung, Adler and Stekel had referred in print to the Swedish seer as "Schwedenberg."21

Second, for Jung, Swedenborg's ideas also represented a teleological and mythopoetic iconography of personal transformation. This is most cogently represented in the details of their respective biographies. Both had come from intensely religaous families. Both had first turned to science and then ended in religion. Both had made the transition after an extended struggle with the unconscious that led to fife transforming experiences. Both evolved a mythic vision of the interior world that had great pragmatic usefulness in their respective careers. Jung thus used Swedenborg in a number of ways to corroborate aspects of his own psychology of the unconscious.

Visionary Experience

Jung was forever attracted to an investigation of personalities whose biography showed that the normal process of growth and transformation was accompanied by, and I will use Huxley's terms, an opening of the doors of perception. At every given moment, we live in a wider and deeper world than normal waking awareness usually reveals. Progress, in the sense of mastering the struggle for self-understanding, or completing the inner work that uniquely confronts every person, can only proceed if we have a way to regard inner experience. When Jung said that the terms of this discourse were of a visionary nature, he meant that the enguIFnag power of psychic experience had to be mediated by symbols appropriate to the task. The numinous quality of transformation could make itself seen through a variety of forms: one could fnad it through waking imagery, through the use of dreams, through the interpretation of religious visions and psychotic hallucinations, actively sought for or unbidden, or through active identification with images from mythology, both personal and collective in nature.

In this search, among numerous other examples, Jung refers in his collected works to Swedenborg's life and visions. He was particularly attracted to the description of Swedenborg's vision of Christ in April, 1744, and he quotes extensively in at least two places Swedenborg's clairvoyant experiences and discusses their implications.22 In another place, he compares Swedenborg's conversations with the dead and recently departed as similar to those found in the Tibetan Bardo Thodol.23


Synchronicitywas for Jung a philosophical way in which the problem of causality could be approached. Direct relationships in which a cause and effect sequence could have an explainable effect were the common stock of science, he said. But what of those occurrences, psychic in nature, which appear together in consciousness but have no apparent causal connection, and yet they have great significance for the inner life of the individual?

As a simple example Jung gave the case where he had ordered a white tuxedo for the opera a week in advance. The day of the performance he received news that a close friend had died and the funeral would be the next day. Almost simultaneously the tuxedo he had ordered a week before arrived, but the tailors had made the mistake of sending a suit of the wrong color--in this case, black, just was he needed for the funeral. Jung was less interested in the explanation that there was some mysterious force at work in the universe, behind the scenes, directing these events, than he was in the purport of his own psychic state.

He found a similar case in Swedenborg's ability to describe in detail the progress of the Stockholm fire.24 That Swedenborg could have had some role in starting the fire by having the thought was ludicrous to Jung. A more plausible explanation was that Swedenborg experienced a fall of the threshold of consciousness and corresponding images became activated in his brain. The archetypal connection had to do more with Swedenborg's immediate psychic state, which gave him access to "absolute knowledge"25

Alchemical Symboh'sm

Jung's interest in alchemy also included comparisons with Swedenborg. Jung had been first attracted to alchemical symbolism through his friend, the sinologist, Richard Wilhelm. Wilhelm had translated a Chinese Taoist text on yoga, The Secret of the Golden Flower, in 1931 and asked Jung to add a psychological commentary.26 Fascinated with the implication that alchemy involved not formulas for the chemical change of lead into gold, but a complex symbolism for the transmutation of the baser elements of the personality into the more noble, Jung began a study of his own European alchemical tradition, which eventually led him to deciphering the psychological and spiritual meaning of the European texts.

Jung's collected works contain numerous references comparingSwedenborg's life and ideas to the symbolism in alchemy. In particular, Jung was attracted to Swedenborg's idea of the maximus homo. In one place, Jung described Swedenborg's formulation as "a gigantic anthropomorphism of the universe."27 In another place, he refers to Swedenborg's maximus homo as a "matrix or organizing principal of consciousness."28 In yet another he suggests that such symbolism expresses a single all---embracing consciousness, the "greatest man," in support of the idea that the individu, al psyche is derived from the collective.29

Finally, in an interesting reference to a patient that he treated who was influenced by Swedenborgianism, Jung compared Swedenborg's idea of the maximus homo with the alchemical image of being devoured by the serpent, the anima mundi; that the patient had reproduced in a dream.

Jung then adds some comments on Swedenborg, himself: Swedenborgwas not a real alchemist, but he was influenced by the mediaeval philosophy of nature and had at one time partially succumbed to a tragic invasion of the unconscious; I refer to the psychic attack during his stay in London, for which there is unmistakable evidence in his own diary. I will not deny that Swedenborg's peculiar mental condition had an influence on the general conscious attitude of my pauent. But anyone with a sufficient knowledge of Swedenborg's chief writings will know that it is very unlikely that he could have infected my pataent with alchemistic philosophy, or that she could have reproduced it by cryptomnesia.30

He was, in other words, suggesting that while the symbolism of Swedenborgians and that of alchemy may carry a similar meaning, there are no grounds for asserting that the patient's exposure to Swedenborg's idea of the maxi-mus homo could have spontaneously caused her to reproduce a related symbol from the alchemical tradition. Also, his comments on Swedenborg's vision should be taken in the context that Jung typically saw visionary experience in a tragic mode, since the entire process was one in which the psyche wages a battle against the forces of its lesser nature, the outcome of which, that is, individuation, was never certain, especially in light of the gargantuan nature of the task.

Jung's affinity with Swedenborg is unmistakable. What is new may be the context in which the attraction can now be understood. Jung stands not in the shadow of Freud and Viennese positivism, but in the light of a more all encompassing depth psychology of personal transformation that has a long past and an enduring presence far beyond the epistemological borders of psychoanalysis.

Acknowledgementsare gratefully extended to Mr. Sonnu Sham-desanl, of London, England, for invaluable materials on Jung, Floumoy and Miss Frank Miller; m Dr. John Huale from the C. G. Jung Center of Boston for materials linkingJung m Janet; and to Dr. Fernando Vidal, University of New Hampshire, for background conversanons on psychology and religion and the Protestant tradition in Switzerland.

1 While there can be little doubt that Jung's system, like Freud's, was built around a personal mythology, only Freud hypostatized his internal structure, and by elevating it to a formal system, protected it out onto the world as a scientific psychology. Jung, at least, called on his followers to formulate their own mythology of the unconscious and warned them not to borrow his. "I can only hope and wish that no one becomes 'Jungian. "...I proclaim no cut-and-dried doctrine and I abhor 'blind adherents.' I leave everyone free to deal with the facts in his own way, since I also claim this freedom for myself." Letter from Jtmg to a Dutch colleague, January 14, 1946. Quoted in Aniela Jaffe (ed.), C G.Jung, Word and Image. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1979,1x 58.

2 John Paul Vader, For the Good of Mankind: August Fowl and the Baha'i Faith. Oxford, England: George Ronald, 1984.

3 The German language backdrop to Pfister's view is presented in J. CorneU, "When Science Entered the Soul: German Psychology and Religion, 1890-1914." Unpub. Ph.D. dissertation in History, Yale University, 1991.

4 Fernando Vidal, "Piaget and the liberal Protestant tradition," In W. R. Woodward and M. Ash (cds.), Psychology in Twentieth Century Thought arm Society. New York Oxford University Press, 1987.

5 Most cogently put forward by Mireille Cifali, "Le fameux couteau de Lichten-bergs" Le Bloc-Notes De la psychoanalypse 4, 1984, 171-188.

6 C. G. Jung, Collected Works. Princeton, New Jersey:. BoUingen/Princeton University Press, 1957-78, in this case, roe 18, p. 299.

7 V. Brome, Jung. New York: Atheneum, 1978, p. 65.

8 C. G. Jung, Memories, Dreams, and Reflections. New York Pantheon, 1969, p. 99.

9 Brome, Op. cir., p. 65.

10 Mireille Cifati, "Theodore Floumoy, la decouverte de l'inconscient, Le Bhx:-Notes De la psychoanalyse, 3, 1983, lll-131;and her "Une glossolale et ses .savants: Elsie Muller alias Helene Smith, La linguistique fantastique, Paris: Clims-Denoe1, 1985, 236-244.

11 Described in Taylor, E. I., William James on Exceptional Mental States: Reconstruction of the 1896 Lowell lectures. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1982; reproduced in paperback by the University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, 1984. See pp. 41-43, for instance.

12 Quoted from James's Varieties of Religious Experience (1902) in Jung's essay "On the Nature of the Psyche," first published in 1946. Collected Works, voL 8, p. 167.Jung added the coda: 'The discovery of 1886 to which James refers is the positing of a 'subliminal consciousness' by Frederick W. H. Myers."

13 Quoted in E. I. Taylor, "William James and C. G. Jung," Spnng, Annualot Archetypal psychology and JungianThought, 1980, 166.

14 Two exceptional articles on the not inconsiderable extent of Janet's influence are by John R. Huale, "Archetype and Integration: Explonng the Janetian Roots of Analytical Psychology," Journal of Analytical Psycology, 1983,28, 253-267; and Huale's "From Somnambulism to the Archetypes: The French toots of Jung's split with Freud," ThePsychoanalytic Review 71:4, 1984, 635-659.

15 Andrew Paskauskas, "The Conspiracy Against Jtmg in Freud's Circle," Paper presented to the History Division of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles, California, August 26, 1985. Unpublished.

16 Sonnu Shamdesani, "Miss Frank Miller. Jung's Paradigm Case of Schizophrenia as Seen Through her American Confinement" Paper presented to the History of Psychiatry Section, New York Hospital/Cornell Medical Center, April 3, 1991. Unpublished

17 Quoted in E. I. Taylor, "William James and C. G. Jung," op. cir., p. 163.

18 Sonnu Shamdesarfi, "Jung, Flournoy, Myers, and the Mediums: Somnambulist Choreographies." Paper presented to the Analytical Psychology Society of Western New York March 29, 1991. Unpublished.

19 F. W. H. Myers, Human Personality and Its Survival of Bodily Death, (originally pub. 1903). Ed. by Susy Smith. New York: University Books, 1961,22, 23, 346, 353-355. Myers also recounts the critique of Swedenborg in Kant's Dreams of a Spirit Seer.

20 For an analysis of the pejorative attatude Freud maintained toward relignon, see E. R. Wallace, IV, "Freud and religion: A history and reappraisal," in The Psychoanalytic Study of Society, 10, 1984, 113-161.

21 C. G. Jung to S. Freud, October 29, 1910. In William McGuke (ed.) The Freud-Jung Letters" The correspondence between Sigmund Fraud and Carl Jurg. Princeton: Princeton University press, 1974, 366.

[It should also be noted that this is the way Kant apparently deliberately misspelled Swedenborg's name in his Dreams ofa Spirit.Seer..Ed.]

22 Collected Works rot 18, p. 295, for imtance.

23 Collected Works, rot 11, p. 519.

24 This refers to a clairvoyant experience of Swedenborg. Kant refers to it ia his Dreams of a Spirit-Seer.

25 See Jung's essay, "On Synchronicity," Collected Works rot 8, p. 481.

26 For a review of Jung's interpretation of Asian sources, see E. I. Taylor, "Contemporary Interest in Chssical Eastern Psychology," in K Paranjpe, D. Ho, & R. Rieber (otis.), Asian Psychology:. Contemporary Perspecni, es. New York: Praeger, 1988.

27 Collected Works, vot 15, p. 9.

28 Collected Works, vol. 9, pt 1, p. 198.

29 Collected Works vot 10, p. 86.

30 Quoted from "A Study in the Process of Individuation," in C. G. Jung, The Integration of Personality. New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1939,p. 47.